The strategy of tension describes how world powers divide, manipulate, and control public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, agents provocateurs, and false flag terrorist actions.
At the beginning of last century’s seventies, the United States and the then-fascist Greek government supported far-right terrorist groups in Italy and Turkey – whose institutions appeared to be threatened by communism – to spread panic among the population who would in turn demand stronger and more dictatorial governments.
The term strategy of tension recurred during the trials that followed in the 1970s and 1980s, notoriously known as “The Years of Lead” or “Anni di Piombo”; during which terror attacks and assassinations were committed by Neo-Fascist terrorists (with such names as Ordine Nuovo, Avanguardia Nazionale or Fronte Nazionale).
Much attention has been on “Operation Gladio”, Italy's branch of the secret pre-positioned NATO “stay-behind” armies of Western Europe. These armies were set up to perform resistance, partisan, and guerrilla activities in the event of Soviet invasion; equivalent units were set up by other NATO members in their states. It is now known that Gladio units were engaged in destabilisation at the behest of the United States and other Western governments, the CIA, the P2 Masonic Lodge, the Order of the Solar Temple, various Church-related organizations, and domestic influences such as organized crime “The Mafia”.
Judicial proof establish that European fascist dictatorships of the time (the Greek junta and the secret services of Francisco Franco) were heavily involved in supporting and arming Italian Neo-Fascist and Neo-Nazi groups. For instance, Avanguardia Nazionale hitman Pierluigi Concutelli used an Ingram MAC-10 SMG to assassinate magistrate Vittorio Occorsio in the 70s. It has been proven that Avanguardia Nazionale secured the weapon from the CIA via Franchist Spain.
Carlo Digilio, an Italian neofascist codenamed “Uncle Otto” coordinated CIA activities in the Italian Regions of Veneto and Friuli from the 60s to the 70s, recruiting former fascists to serve the NATO and U.S. interests in Italy. He himself had been recruited in Verona by U.S. Navy captain David Carrett.
These groups began to pursue an ostensibly extreme right-wing anti-communist agenda using violent means, including false flag bombings that were then blamed on extra-parliamentary left-wing militant organizations, creating massive public concern and widespread paranoia.
Based on a parliamentary report, the Manchester Guardian, in an article published on June 24, 2000, reported how the United States support for 'anti-left terror in Italy', and the activities of Gladio, was aiming to make the public think that the bombings were committed by a communist insurgency; to promote the formation of an authoritarian government, and to prevent the Italian Communist Party (PCI) from joining the ruling Democrazia Cristiana (DC) in a national unity government (the “Historic Compromise” between Aldo Moro and Enrico Berlinguer, respective leaders of the DC and of the PCI). An immediate consequence was the kidnapping and assassination of Aldo Moro to be blamed on the Red Brigades.
An astonishing observation of the terrorism in Italy that was blamed on communists is that it coincided with election victories for the communists at the polls. So as the PCI was gaining popular support, the number of civilian-targeted bombings, random knee-capping, and high-profile kidnappings blamed on communist terrorists increased markedly.
The existence of US Army Field Manual 30-31B lends even more credibility to what the CIA did to destabilise democratic nations to foster the U.S.' interests. Licio Gelli*, grand master of the P2 Masonic Lodge involved in all of the murkiest and bloodiest episodes of the strategy of tension, repeated openly and bluntly (for example to BBC journalist Allan Francovich) to have received his copy directly from the hands of CIA men.
One ongoing story that reads like a John Le Carré thriller surfaced again recently, capturing headlines throughout the European press. A portion of the story was introduced in a previous 404 report, describing how Banco Ambrosiano, the largest privately-owned bank in Italy, served to funnel $1.3 billion from the CIA and the Vatican to phony corporations in Panama that were really fronts for anti-communist groups. Adding to the mystery of the case, bank chairman Roberto Calvi was found hanged, his body dangling under London's Blackfriars Bridge with a brick in the pocket of a melodramatic black monk's robe.
In mid-October, Licio Gelli, the mastermind behind the Banco Ambrosiano swindle, was returned to Italy to face a 12-year jail term. Gelli, now 79, had evaded authorities since his 1982 conviction for bank fraud in the Ambrosiano case, but other evidence confirmed that he was involved in schemes far darker.
Now.. If official disclosed records prove that similar guided activities were executed successfully in Turkey, in Argentina, in Chile, and in Algeria; all involving CIA operatives and locally recruited assets in collaboration with high political figures and the upper ranks of criminal organisations; the question would be: is there a similar “Strategy Of Tension” agenda already activated to drive the post revolution Egypt into a turbulent era that only God knows how long will it last? The ongoing actual daily events not only suggest, they also support a gigantic “YES” for an answer.
And if the same records show that somehow those engaged in such crimes, or at least part of them, were successfully brought to justice and served terms; another question would be: will it be the case for Egypt?
Pass On The Word.
· The Guardian
· MichaelP email@example.com Dec 1998